Chun's assumption of the presidency in the events of May 17, triggered nationwide protests demanding democracy, in particular in the city of Gwangju , to which Chun sent special forces to violently suppress the Gwangju Democratization Movement. This allowed the UN to intervene in a civil war when it became apparent that the superior North Korean forces would unify the entire country. After an ebb and flow that saw both sides almost pushed to the brink of extinction, and massive losses among Korean civilians in both the north and the south, the war eventually reached a stalemate. The years after Park's assassination were marked again by political turmoil, as the previously suppressed opposition leaders all campaigned to run for president in the sudden political void. Through a series of successful battles of attrition, the Japanese forces were eventually forced to withdraw, and relations between all parties became normalized. Roh went on to win the election by a narrow margin against the two main opposition leaders, Kim Dae-Jung and Kim Young-Sam.
As Lelang commandery was destroyed and rebuilt around this time, the place gradually moved toward Liadong. A period of political instability followed, broken by General Park Chung-hee 's May 16 coup against the weak and ineffectual government the next year. Korea was the first chair of the G during the Seoul summit In , there was an escalation in attacks by North Korea. Goguryeo experienced a golden age under Gwanggaeto the Great and his son Jangsu ,     who both subdued Baekje and Silla during their times, achieving a brief unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea and becoming the most dominant power on the Korean Peninsula. The lack of a strong response to these attacks from both South Korea and the international community the official UN report declined to explicitly name North Korea as the perpetrator for the Cheonan sinking caused significant anger with the South Korean public. However, the Manchus took advantage of Joseon's war-weakened state and invaded in and , and then went on to conquer the destabilized Ming dynasty. Park was heavily criticised as a ruthless military dictator, who in extended his rule by creating a new constitution , which gave the president sweeping almost dictatorial powers and permitted him to run for an unlimited number of six-year terms. In the South, Syngman Rhee , an opponent of communism, who had been backed and appointed by the United States as head of the provisional government, won the first presidential elections of the newly declared Republic of Korea in May. Furthermore, the Joseon government adopted a strict isolationist policy, earning the nickname "the hermit kingdom ", but ultimately failed to protect itself against imperialism and was forced to open its borders. Kings Yeongjo and Jeongjo particularly led a new renaissance of the Joseon dynasty during the 18th century. Park took over as president until his assassination in , overseeing rapid export-led economic growth as well as implementing political repression. However, the Korean economy developed significantly during Park's tenure and the government developed the nationwide expressway system , the Seoul subway system , and laid the foundation for economic development during his year tenure. Later Silla carried on the maritime prowess of Baekje , which acted like the Phoenicia of medieval East Asia ,  and during the 8th and 9th centuries dominated the seas of East Asia and the trade between China, Korea and Japan, most notably during the time of Jang Bogo ; in addition, Silla people made overseas communities in China on the Shandong Peninsula and the mouth of the Yangtze River. On May 17, Chun Doo-hwan forced the Cabinet to expand martial law to the whole nation, which had previously not applied to the island of Jejudo. Seoul hosted the Olympic Games in , widely regarded as successful and a significant boost for South Korea's global image and economy. His election was significant given that he had in earlier years been a political prisoner sentenced to death later commuted to exile. No peace treaty was ever signed, resulting in the two countries remaining technically at war. Between and , Toyotomi Hideyoshi launched invasions of Korea , but his advance was halted by Korean forces most notably the Joseon Navy led by Admiral Yi Sun-sin and his renowned " turtle ship "      with assistance from Righteous Army militias formed by Korean civilians, and Ming dynasty Chinese troops. The years after Park's assassination were marked again by political turmoil, as the previously suppressed opposition leaders all campaigned to run for president in the sudden political void. The transition of Korean from autocracy to modern democracy was marked in by the election of Kim Dae-jung , who was sworn in as the eighth president of South Korea, on February 25, He won against the backdrop of the Asian Financial Crisis , where he took IMF advice to restructure the economy and the nation soon recovered its economic growth, albeit at a slower pace. Through a series of successful battles of attrition, the Japanese forces were eventually forced to withdraw, and relations between all parties became normalized. Yi Seong-gye declared the new name of Korea as "Joseon" in reference to Gojoseon, and moved the capital to Hanseong one of the old names of Seoul. Goguryeo, the largest and most powerful among them, was a highly militaristic state,   and competed with various Chinese dynasties during its years of history. The expanded martial law closed universities, banned political activities and further curtailed the press. In the North, however, a former anti-Japanese guerrilla and communist activist, Kim Il-sung was appointed premier of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in September.
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